OKSIMO MEETS POPPER. The Generalized Oksimo Theory Paradigm

eJournal: uffmm.org
ISSN 2567-6458, 5.April – 5.April  2021
Email: info@uffmm.org
Author: Gerd Doeben-Henisch
Email: gerd@doeben-henisch.de

Last changes: Small corrections, April 8, 2021


This text is part of a philosophy of science  analysis of the case of the oksimo software (oksimo.com). A specification of the oksimo software from an engineering point of view can be found in four consecutive  posts dedicated to the HMI-Analysis for  this software.

The Generalized Oksimo Paradigm
Figure: Overview of the Generalized Oksimo Paradigm

In the preceding sections it has been shown that the oksimo paradigm is principally fitting in the theory paradigm as it has been  discussed by Popper. This is possible because some of the concepts used by Popper have been re-interpreted by re-analyzing the functioning of the symbolic dimension. All the requirements of Popper could be shown to work but now even in a more extended way.


To describe the oksimo paradigm it is not necessary to mention as a wider context the general perspective of sustainability as described by the United Nations [UN][1]. But if one understands the oksiomo paradigm deeper and one knows that from the 17 sustainable development goals [SDGs] the fourth goal [SDG4] is understood by the UN as the central key for the development of all the other SDGs [2], then one can understand this as an invitation to think about that kind of knowledge which could be the ‘kernel technology’ for sustainability. A ‘technology’ is not simply ‘knowledge’, it is a process which enables the participants — here assumed as human actors with built-in meaning functions — to share their experience of the world and as well their hopes, their wishes, their dreams to become true in a reachable future. To be ‘sustainable’ these visions have to be realized in a fashion which keeps the whole of biological life alive on earth as well in the whole universe. Biological life is the highest known value with which the universe is gifted.

Knowledge as a kernel technology for a sustainable future of the whole biological life has to be a process where all human biological life-forms headed by the human actors have to contribute with their experience and capabilities to find those possible future states (visions, goals, …) which can really enable a sustainable future.


To enable different isolated brains in different bodies to ‘cooperate’ and thereby to ‘coordinate’ their experience, and their behavior, the only and most effective way to do this is known as ‘symbolic communication’: using expressions of some ordinary language whose ‘meaning’ has been learned by every member of the population beginning with being born on this planet.  Human actors (classified as the life-form ‘homo sapiens’) have the most known elaborated language capability by being able to associate all kinds of experience with expressions of an ordinary language. These ‘mappings’ between expressions and the general experience is taking place ‘inside the brain’ and these mappings are highly ‘adaptive’; they can change over time and they are mostly ‘synchronized’ with the mappings taking place in other brains. Such a mapping is here called a ‘meaning function’ [μ].


The different sientific disciplines today have developed many different views and models how to describe the symbolic dimension, their ‘parts’, their functioning. Here we assume only three different kinds of expressions which can be analayzed further with nearly infinite many details.

True Concrete Expressions [S_A]

The ‘everyday case’ occurs if human actors share a real actual situation and they use their symbolic expressions to ‘talk about’ the shared situation, telling each other what is given according to their understanding using their built-in meaning function μ. With regard to the shared knowledge and language these human actors can decide, wether an expression E used in the description is matching the observed situation or not. If the expression is matching than such an expression is classified as being a ‘true expression’. Otherwise it is either undefined or eventually ‘false’ if it ‘contradicts’ directly. Thus the set of all expressions assumed to be true in a actual given situation S is named  here S_A. Let us look to an example: Peter says, “it is raining”, and Jenny says “it is not raining”. If all would agree, that   it is raining, then Peters expression is classified as ‘true’ and Jennys expression as ‘false’. If  different views would exist in the group, then it is not clear what is true or false or undefined in this group! This problem belongs to the pragmatic dimension of communication, where human actors have to find a way to clarify their views of the world. The right view of the situation  depends from the different individual views located in the individual brains and these views can be wrong. There exists no automatic procedure to get a ‘true’ vision of the real world.

General Assumptions [S_U]

It is typical for human actors that they are collecting knowledge about the world including general assumptions like “Birds can fly”, “Ice is melting in the sun”, “In certain cases the covid19-virus can bring people to death”, etc. These expressions are usually understood as ‘general’ rules  because they do not describe a concrete single case but are speaking of many possible cases. Such a general rule can be used within some logical deduction as demonstrated by the  classical greek logic:  ‘IF it is true that  “Birds can fly” AND we have a certain fact  “R2D2 is a bird” THEN we can deduce the fact  “R2D2 can fly”‘.  The expression “R2D2 can fly”  claims to be  true. Whether this is ‘really’ the case has to be shown in a real situation, either actually or at some point in the future. The set of all assumed general assumptions is named here S_U.

Possible Future States [S_V]

By experience and some ‘creative’ thinking human actors can imagine concrete situations, which are not yet actually given but which are assumed to be ‘possible’; the possibility can be interpreted as some ‘future’ situation. If a real situation would be reached which includes the envisioned state then one could say that the vision has become  ‘true’. Otherwise the envisioned state is ‘undefined’: perhaps it can become true or not.  In human culture there exist many visions since hundreds or even thousands of years where still people are ‘believing’ that they will become ‘true’ some day. The set of all expressions related to a vision is named here S_V.


If the set of expressions S_V  related to a ‘vision’ (accompanied by many emotions, desires, details of all kinds) is not empty,  then it is possible to look for those ‘actions’ which with highest ‘probability’ π can ‘change’ a given situation S_A in a way that the new situation S’  is becoming more and more similar to the envisioned situation S_V. Thus a given goal (=vision) can inspire a ‘construction process’ which is typical for all kinds of engineering and creative thinking. The general format of an expression to describe a change is within the oksimo paradigm assumed as follows:

  1. With regard to a given situation S
  2. Check whether a certain set of expressions COND is a subset of the expressions of S
  3. If this is the case then with probability π:
  4. Remove all expressions of the set Eminus from S,
  5. Add all expressions of the set Eplus to S
  6. and update (compute) all parameters of the set Model

In a short format:

S’π = S – Eminus + Eplus & MODEL(S)

All change rules together represent the set X. In the general theory paradigm the change rules X represent the inference rules, which together with a general ‘inference concept’ X constitute the ‘logic’ of the theory. This enables the following general logical relation:

{S_U, S_A} <S_A, S1, S2, …, Sn>

with the continuous evaluation: |S_V ⊆ Si| > θ. During the whole construction it is possible to evaluate each individual state whether the expressions of the vision state S_V are part of the actual state Si and to which degree.

Such a logical deduction concept is called a ‘simulation’ by using a ‘simulator’ to repeat the individual deductions.


The above outlined oksimo theory paradigm can easily be extended by some more features:

  1. AUTONOMOUS ACTORS: The change rules X so far are ‘static’ rules. But we know from everyday life that there are many dynamic sources around which can cause some change, especially biological and non-biological actors. Every such actors can be understood as an input-output system with an adaptive ‘behavior function’ φ.  Such a behavior can not be modeled by ‘static’ rules alone. Therefore one can either define theoretical models of such ‘autonomous’ actors with  their behavior and enlarge the set of change rules X with ‘autonomous change rules’ Xa as Xa ⊆ X. The other variant is to include in real time ‘living autonomous’ actors as ‘players’ having the role of an ‘autonomous’ rule and being enabled to act according to their ‘will’.
  2. MACHINE INTELLIGENCE: To run a simulation will always give only ‘one path’ P in the space of possible states. Usually there would be many more paths which can lead to a goal state S_V and the accompanying parameters from Model can be different: more or less energy consumption, more or less financial losses, more or less time needed, etc. To improve the knowledge about the ‘good candidates’ in the possible state space one can introduce  general machine intelligence algorithms to evaluate the state space and make proposals.
  3. REAL-TIME PARAMETERS: The parameters of Model can be connected online with real measurements in near real-time. This would allow to use the collected knowledge to ‘monitor’ real processes in the world and based on the collected knowledge recommend actions to react to some states.

[1] The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015, provides a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future. At its heart are the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are an urgent call for action by all countries – developed and developing – in a global partnership. They recognize that ending poverty and other deprivations must go hand-in-hand with strategies that improve health and education, reduce inequality, and spur economic growth – all while tackling climate change and working to preserve our oceans and forests. See PDF: https://sdgs.un.org/sites/default/files/publication/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf

[2] UN, SDG4, PDF, Argumentation why the SDG4 ist fundamental for all other SDGs: https://sdgs.un.org/sites/default/files/publications/2275sdbeginswitheducation.pdf




eJournal: uffmm.org
ISSN 2567-6458, 24.March – 24.March 2021
Email: info@uffmm.org
Author: Gerd Doeben-Henisch
Email: gerd@doeben-henisch.de


This text is part of a philosophy of science  analysis of the case of the  oksimo software (oksimo.com). A specification of the oksimo software from an engineering point of view can be found in four consecutive  posts dedicated to the HMI-Analysis for  this software.


In formal logic exists the concept of logical derivation ‘⊢’ written as

EX e

saying that one can get the expression e out of the set of expressions E by applying the rules X.

In the oksimo case we have sets of expressions ES to represent either a given starting state S or to represent as EV a given vision V. Furthermore  we have change rules X operating on sets of expressions and we can derive sequences of states of expressions <E1, E2, …, En> by applying the change rules X with the aid of a simulator Σ onto these expressions written as

ESΣ,X <E1, E2, …, En>

Thus given an initial set of expressions ES one can derive a whole sequence of expression sets Ei by applying the change rules.

While all individual expressions of the start set ES are by assumption classified as true it holds for the derived sets of expressions Ei  that these expressions are correct with regard to the used change rules X but whether these sets of expressions are also true with regard to a given  situation Si considered as a possible future state Sfuti has to be proved separately! The reason for this unclear status results from the fact that the change rules X represent changes which the authoring experts consider as possible changes which they want to apply but they cannot guarantee the empirical validity for all upcoming times   only by thinking. This implicit uncertainty can be handled a little bit with the probability factor π of an individual change rule. The different degrees of certainty in the application of a change rule can give an approximation of this uncertainty. Thus as longer the chain of derivations is becoming as lower the assumed probability will develop.


Thus if we have some human actors Ahum, an environment ENV, some starting situation S as part of the environment ENV, a first set of expressions ES representing only true expressions with regard to the starting situation S, a set of elaborated change rules X, and a simulator Σ then one can  define a simple  oksimo-like theory Toksimo as follows:

TOKSIMO(x) iff x = <ENV, S, Ahum, ES, X, Σ, ⊢Σ,X, speakL(), makedecidable()>

The human actors can describe a given situation S as part of an environment ENV as a set of expressions ES which can be proved with makedecidable() as true. By defining a set of change rules X and a simulator Σ one can define  a formal derivation relation Σ,X which allows the derivation of a sequence of sets of expressions <E1, E2, …, En> written as

EST,Σ,X <E1, E2, …, En>

While the truth of the first set of expressions ES has been proved in the beginning, the truth of the derived sets of expressions has to be shown explicitly for each set Ei separately. Given is only the formal correctness of the derived expressions according to the change rules X and the working of the simulator.


One can extend the simple oksimo theory TOKSIMO to a biased  oksimo theory TOKSIMO.V if one includes in the theory a set of vision expressions EV. Vision expressions can describe a possible situation in the future Sfut which is declared as a goal to be reached. With a given vision document EV the simulator can check for every new derived set of expressions Ei to which degree the individual expressions e of the set of vision expressions EV are already reached.


But one has to keep in mind that the purely formal achievement of a given vision document EV does not imply that the corresponding situation Sfut    is a real situation.  The corresponding situation Sfut  is first of all only an idea in the mind of the experts.  To transfer this idea into the real environment as a real situation is a process on its own known as engineering.